Things to consider before starting onion farming

According to Food and Agriculture Organization’s report, half of red onions sold in Kenyan markets are grown in Tanzania. Local farmers are trying their best to address the demand and close the gap, although the demand is always higher than the supply. This demand makes farming onions investment a very attractive commercial investment.

There are two main onions grown in Kenya, bulb onions and spring onions. Of the two types, bulb onions are more popular than the spring ones due to their long shelf life and sweet taste. Prices of onions fluctuate depending on the season and variety planted. The price fluctuation is mainly attributed to the importation of onions from Tanzania, where the cost production is lower. Timing is therefore key if a farmer wishes reap from their produce. The best time is between November to May as onions fetch high prices due to low supply from Tanzania.

The best areas suited for growing onions are Kajiado, Narok, Kieni, Karatina, Oloitoktok, Kakamega, and Naivasha, among others. Onions do well in well-drained fertile soils rich in humus with the pH ranging from 5.8-6.5

The common varieties grown in Kenya include Jambar F1, Islero, Red creole, Red Passion and Red Pinnoy. All the varieties in Kenya prefer warm to hot temperatures, that is 15-30 degrees Celsius.

An acre requires 1-1.5kg of onion seeds depending on the variety and the spacing. The spacing normally affects the size of the bulb onions. Onions can be grown by direct seeding, which requires intensive management or one can decide to first establish a nursery bed. Just like other vegetables planted on nursery bed, site selection is key to proper planning for production of healthy and vigorous growing seedlings. The site should be in a secure environment, near a water source and preferably near the crop production site. It should be raised to a height of about 15cm to encourage drainage, 1m width for easy workability and the length of your own desire depending on the number of seeds to be sowed.

Shallow drills are made 2cm deep and 15cm apart after levelling and seeds sowed singly. This is achieved by mixing sand and onion seeds in a ratio of 3:1.
Cover the nursery bed using agro — nets or dry grass free of weeds, pest and diseases and immediately after sowing, watering should be done twice per week depending with the moisture level. In most cases, the seeds sprout after seven days.

The crop in the nursery should be established for 4-6 weeks and transplanted when pencil size in thickness, 10 to 15cm tall and have 3-5 true leaves.

It’s always wise to do a soil test before planting to know the status of nutrients in the soil, which will guide you on nutrient application for onions production.

A serious farmer should prepare the land to a fine tilth and add well decomposed manure. Depending on the soil test, one can consider using DAP during planting and top-dress using CAN at week four. Frequent scouting for crop nutrition is paramount and mitigation measures should be taken immediately.

To prevent the transplanting shock, do the exercise early morning, late in evening or when the weather is cloudy.

It’s ideal to trim the shoot and root (3 inches for shoots and 0.5 inch for roots) before seedling placement to minimise moisture loss and seedling shock during and after transplanting.

The ideal spacing is 8-10cm between the seedlings and 15cm for inter row distance to allow better bulb development. Spacing is also determined by the variety planted and soil fertility.

Onion production can be done in the greenhouse and open field depending on the location with the latter being more preferred.

Rains or excess watering
Too much rains or excess watering can water log the crop. If the rain in your area is too much, focus on growing the crop during the short rains. You can also raise the beds to ensure the water flows out of the field. Avoid excessive watering of your onions. The best type of irrigation on onions is drip irrigation. Overhead irrigation should be avoided as it causes fungal diseases.

Pests and diseases
Common diseases that affect onions include Downy Mildew, Bacterial Soft Rots, Pink/White Root, Botrytis, and Rusts. Use herbicides to get rid of the diseases. Common pests that attack onions include maggots, thrips, onion flies, red spider mites, nematodes and the leaf miner. Use pesticides from accredited brands to get rid of the pests. Frequent scouting for pest and diseases is important for early detection, prevention and control.

The land should be free of weeds, which compete for nutrients, light and space and harbour pest and diseases. Weeds should be removed occasionally either physically or through the use of herbicides. In one season, there should be at least 2 – 3 weeding sessions.

Once transplanting is done, one should prepare to harvest after 4-5 months depending on the variety. Top leaves will yellow and begin to fall over, an indication they are ready for harvesting, which should coincide with dry and hot weather.

Curing of the onions is done by uprooting every single stem and leaving it to dry after which leaves and roots are cut off with a sharp knife. A good harvest offers 20-25 tonnes per acre depending with the variety. Lucy wrote back to me saying she had made up her mind to farm onions. I will give progress on how she is fairing.

37 thoughts on “Things to consider before starting onion farming

  1. susan

    hi onset of Covid 19 led me to my rural home for a few weeks. After several stay in the house i had no choice but try a little bit of farming. Tried onions – prepared a nursery planted onion seedlings i have never done any onion planting in my lifetime but was guided by my farm worker. It has been a month the seedlings are now ready and therefore this information is vital for me.

    • Muthama

      Hey Susan can we link up I want to join onion farming.i have been doing Tomatoes.kindly
      0702125611 WhatsApp

  2. Gatere

    Am trying onion farming for the first time. This information is very important to me

  3. eugene

    i want to try onion farming please guide me through how to start and what to do

  4. Festus

    Want to do onions in a quarter acre along kangundo road. Do we have any onion farmer along that aide who can help me with benxhmarking with his/her farm?

  5. Miriam

    Hi I want to start onion farming at coast lamu county kindly advise

  6. kevin

    Thank for the information , have never done any onion planting in my lifetime currently i’m doing a 3 acres of it for my first test . It has been a 2 weeks the seedlings at nursery germinating

  7. Victor

    I want to try onion farming kindly guide me.

  8. Peter

    A good job indeed.I want to do onions at Mariakani.Have ten acres.Please advice

  9. Muthoni

    Just planted onions in Naromoro. Thanks for the guide.. Very useful

    • Simon

      Hi how’s the progress…. interested in trying the same around your area

    • Margaret Ngima

      Waoh congrats I want to start by Oct rains am in karemeno kieni west which variety in Narumoro do u plant since the weather is almost

  10. juliana

    hi i want to do onion farming in makueni along athi river can i get more help from you kindly can reach me by this number 0723660111

  11. Godfrey

    Thank you,,have done testing for onions in Tharaka nithi and they are doing well,,thinking of now doing an acre farm..further information will be of help alot

    • Malala

      Want to plant onions in Masindi Uganda, the information is really worthy. Never done it before though.

  12. Victoria

    I plan to begin onion farming in makueni county, kiongwani location. Am a first time farmer. Any guidance will be highly appreciated

  13. Fred Obasanjo

    This information was very helpful. Can you please add some more. I want to start this project in Meru, and I need some directions.

  14. Patrick

    Want to start onions farming at Endarasha, it’s my first farming and i need ,who can help from that area?

  15. Ali

    I want to start onion farming in tharaka nithi. Please give guidance .

  16. shariff

    yes, this sounds wonderful, I really wanted to start onions here in kajiado for my one and a half acre land, kindly advice for sand testing and an experienced farmer who knows more about onions.infact i wanted to get those bulb seeds also.guday.

  17. Winnie Onyango

    Hi, am interested in planting onion off season that is January next year, my question is can onion do better in Busia and if yes which varieties are most suited for the region

  18. Winnie Onyango

    Am interested in planting onions off season, that is January next year, can the crop do well in Busia county and if yes which varieties are most suited?

  19. Mugo EW

    Hi. Any tips or info on spring onion farming- the dos and donts etc?

  20. James Njeru

    Hi, anyone doing onion farming in Embu,runyenjes?
    I want to begin and I need some guidelines. 0727366855

  21. Noah kosgei

    Very helpful information about market?

  22. winfred makau

    I am interested with onion project please advice the best type which is favourable for malaa area along kangundo road

  23. Robert

    I need guidance to do onions @ kipkaren in uasin gishu county reach me on 0720489098 I will appreciate


    I am planning to do onion farming around Kakamega region however it is almost certain that I will do that during the long rains I have a big doubt about this. Will I be able to harvest as much as I should and hit the market at the right time?

  25. Gerishon

    Hi. This is good information. I had prepared my land to do onions but am hesitant since if I do them now they will come out in June when the Tanzanian ones are in the market hence fetch me little. The cost of production is also high with seed price and chemicals used. Please advise.

  26. Bill

    i have about 1 acre and wish to begin growing spring onions on about 1/4 acre in Vihiga. I really did not want to go the long route testing for pH mainly due to time shortage (November – May period) and the ‘unnecessary cost’; the fine tilth is ready; can i proceed?

  27. Patrick Chege

    I live in nanyuki, but my farm is close to naromoru. Which breed did you grow, and how are they doing

  28. Jimmy

    Interesting article. Would like to try onion farming at coast but temperatures rise above 30°c . Is it possible if who can help?

  29. Kimani Gitau

    Habari,interested in ONION PROJECT, kindly how to begin………………..

  30. Nicholas kibet

    The information is very important to the farmers, actually helpful. I did Agricultural extension education, anybody who wants someone to guide and manage hes or her farm to reach out to me.

  31. Nicholas kibet

    A very helpful information to farmers. Anybody who wants someone to guide and manage hes or her farm to conduct me. I did Agricultural extension education.

  32. Wairimu njoroge

    Kindly am in Busia interested in starting onion farming

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